THE ROMAN DYNASTIES OF ROME & CONSTANTINOPLE

238AD - 284 AD
THE START OF THE CRISIS YEARS
AND THE YEAR OF THE SIX EMPERORS 238AD

The The Crisis of the Third Century Started with the Year of the Six Emperors (238) There were six emperors in 238 AD and each of them were officially recognized by the Roman Senate. Their names were Maximinus Thrax, Gordian I, Gordian II, Balbinus, Pupienus and Gordian III. By the end of the Year of the Six Emperors five had died a violent and bloody death leaving the 13 year old Gordian III as the sole Roman Emperor.

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MAXIMIN THRAX 235 - 238 AD

CAESAR GAIVS JVLIVS VERVS MAXIMINVS AVGVSTVS
BORN 173 AD, THRACE OR MOESIA
RULE 3 YEARS 3 MONTHS 20 MARCH 235 AD – JUNE 238 AD
Proclaimed Emperor by German legions after the murder of Severus Alexander
Assassinated by Praetorian Guard
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MAXIMIN THAX 235 - 23 8AD
BUSTS OF MAXIMIN THAX
FROM MUSEUMS: LOUVRE, Copenhagen, ROME,

 

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GORDIAN I 238 AD

CAESAR MARCVS ANTONIVS GORDIANVS SEMPRONIANVS AFRICANVS AVGVSTVSS
BORN 159 AD, PHRGIA ?
RULE 21 DAYS 22 MARCH 238 AD – 12 APRIL, 238 AD
Proclaimed emperor, in Africa during a revolt against Maximinus
Ruled jointly with his son Gordian II
Committed suicide upon hearing of the death of Gordian II
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GORDIAN I 238 AD
BUSTS OF
TITUS FROM MUSEUMS: BRITISH MUSEUM, ROME,

 

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GORDIAN II 238 AD

CAESAR MARCVS ANTONIVS GORDIANVS SEMPRONIANVS ROMANVS AFRICANVS AVGVSTVS
BORN 192 ? AD,
RULE 21 DAYS 22 MARCH 238 AD – 12 APRIL, 238 AD
Proclaimed emperor alongside his farther Gordian I by act of the Senate
Killed during the Battle of Carthage fighting a pro-Maximinus army
.
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GORDIAN II 238 AD
BUSTS OF GORDIAN II
FROM MUSEUMS: ROME,

 

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PUPIENUS 238 AD

CAESAR MARCVS CLODIVS PVPIENVS MAXIMVS AVGVSTVS
BORN 178 AD
RULE 3 MONTHS 22 APRIL, 238 AD – 29 JULY 238 AD
Proclaimed joint emperor with Balbinus .
Assassinated by the Praetorian Guard
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PUPIENUS 238 AD
BUSTS OF PUPIENUS
FROM MUSEUMS: LOUVRE, VATICAN, FLORENCE, ROME,

 

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BALBINUS 238 AD

CAESAR DECIMVS CAELIVS CALVINVS BALBINVS PIVS AVGVSTVS
BORN 176 ?
RULE 3 MONTHS 22 APRIL, 238 AD – 29 JULY 238 AD
Proclaimed joint emperor with Pupienus.

Assassinated by the Praetorian Guard
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BALBINUS 238 AD
BUSTS OF BALBINUS
FROM MUSEUMS: ROME, St. Petersburg

 

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GORDIAN III 238 AD - 244 AD

CAESAR MARCVS ANTONINVS GORDIANVS AVGVSTVS
BORN 20 JANUARY 225 AD, ROME
RULE 6 YEARS 22 APRIL 238 AD - 11 FEBRUARY 244 AD
Proclaimed emperor by supporters of Gordian I & II, then by the Senate-joint emperor with Pupienus & Balbinus until July 238 AD..
Unknown possibly Murdered by Philip i
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GORDIAN III 238 - 244 AD
BUSTS OF GORDIAN III
FROM MUSEUMS: LOUVRE,, ROME,

 

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PHILLIPP THE ARAB 244 AD - 249 AD

CAESAR MARCVS IVLIVS PHILLIPVS AVGVSTVS
BORN 204 AD, SHAHBA SYRIA
RULE 5 YEARS FEBRUAY 244 AD - SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 249 AD
Praetorian Prefect to Gordian III, took power after his death,made his son Philip II co-emperpor in summer 247 A..
Killed
in battle against Trajan Decius near Verona
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PHILLIPP THE ARAB 244 - 249AD
BUSTS OF PHILLIPP THE ARAB
FROM MUSEUMS:VATICAN, Copenhagen, ROME, VENICE, St. Petersburg

 

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Trajan Decius 249 AD - 251 AD
and son Quintus Herennius

CAESAR MARCVS ANTONINVS GORDIANVS AVGVSTVS
BORN 201 AD, BUDALIA, LOWER PANNONIA
RULE 2 YEARS SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 249 AD- JUNE 251 AD
Governor under Philip I, proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions and defeated Philip in battle
Made his son Herennius Etrusus co-emperor in 251AD
.
.
Both killed in battle of Abrittus fighting the goths
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TRAJAN DECIUS 249 - 251 AD
BUSTS OF TRAJAN DECIUS
FROM MUSEUMS: BRITISH MUSEUM, ROME,FLORENCE

 

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HOSTILLIAN 251 AD - LATE 251 AD

CAESAR CAIVS VALENS HOSTILIANVS MESSIVS QVINTVS AVGVSTVS
BORN Sirmium, Pannonia
RULE 4-5 MONTHS JUNE 251 AD - LATE 251 AD
Son of Trajan Decius accepted as heir by the Senate..
Natural causes (Plague)
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HOSTILLIAN 251 AD
BUSTS OF HOSTILLIAN
FROM MUSEUMS: ROME,

 

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TREBONIANUS GALLUS 251 AD - 253 AD

CAESAR CAIVS VIBIVS TREBONIANVS GALLVS AVGVSTVS
BORN 206 AD, ITALIA
RULE 2 YEARS JUNE 251 AD - AUGUST 253 AD
Governor of Moesia Superior,proclaimed emperor by the Danubian legions after Tranjan Decius death in opposition to Hostilian. Made his son Volusianus co-emperor in 251 AD..
Both assassinated by their troops in favour of Aemiliam
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TREBONIANS GALLUS 251 -253 AD
BUSTS OF TREBONIANS GALLUS
FROM MUSEUMS: LOUVRE, ROME, Copenhagen, FLORENCE, NEW YORK (ROME)

 

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AEMILLIAN 253 AD - 253 AD

CAESAR MARCVS AEMILIVS AEMILIANVS AVGVSTVS
BORN 207 AD, AFRICA
RULE 2 MONTHS AUGUST 253 AD - OCTOBER 253 AD
Governor of Moesia Superior,proclaimed emperor by the Danubian legions after defeating the Goths, accepted as emperor after the death of Trebonianvs Gallus..
Assassinated by his own troops in favour of Valerian
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AEMILLIAN 253 AD
BUSTS OF AEMILLIAN
FROM MUSEUMS: ROME,

 

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VALERIAN 253 AD - 260 AD

CAESAR PVBLIVS LICINIVS VALERIANVS AVGVSTVS
BORN 195 AD
RULE 7 YEARS OCTOBER 253 AD – 260 AD
Proclaimed emperor by Rhine legions after death of Gallus; accepted as emperor after death of Aemilian.
Captured in Battle of Edessa against Persians, died in captivity
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VALERIAN 253 - 260 AD
BUSTS OF VALERIAN
FROM MUSEUMS: BRITISH MUSEUM, Copenhagen, ROME,

 

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GALLIENUS 253 AD - 268 AD

CAESAR PVBLIVS LICINIVS EGNATIVS GALLIENVS AVGVSTVS
BORN 218 AD ?
RULE 15 YEARS October 253 AD – September 268 AD
Son of Valerian, made co-emperor in 253 AD; his son Saloninus is very briefly co-emperor in c. July before assassination by Postumus..

Murdered at Aquileia by his own commanders.
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GALLIENUS 253 - 268 AD
BUSTS OF GALLIENUS
FROM MUSEUMS: BRITISH MUSEUM, LOUVRE, Copenhagen, ROME, FLORRNCE, SICILY

 

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CLAUDIUS GOTHICUS 268 AD - 270 AD

CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CLAVDIVS AVGVSTVS
BORN 1MAY 10, 213 AD/214 AD, SIRMIUM
RULE 1 YEAR 4 MONTHS SEPTEMBER 268 AD – JANUARY
270 AD
Victorious general at Battle of Naissus, seized power after Gallienus's death.
Natural causes (Plague)
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CLAUDIUS GOTHICUS 268 - 270 AD
BUSTS OF CLAUDIUS GOTHICUS
FROM MUSEUMS: ROME,

 

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QUINTILLS 270 AD

CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CLAVDIVS QVINTILLVS AVGVSTVS
BORN SIRMIUM?
RULE UNKNOWN 270 AD
Brother of Claudius Gothicus, seized power after his death
.
Unclear; possibly suicide or murder
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QUINTILLS 270 AD
BUSTS OF
QUINILLS FROM MUSEUMS: BRITISH MUSEUM,FLORENCE

 

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AURELIAN 270 AD - 275 AD

CAESAR LVCIVS DOMITIVS AVRELIANVS AVGVSTVS
BORN September, 214 AD/215 AD, Sirmium
RULE 5 YEARS SEPTEMBER 270 AD – SEPTEMBER 275 ADD
Proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions after Claudius II's death, in opposition to Quintillus..
Assassinated by Praetorian Guard
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AURELIAN 270 - 275B AD
BUSTS OF AURELIAN
FROM MUSEUMS: ROME,

 

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TACITUS 275 AD - 276 AD

CAESAR MARCVS ANTONINVS GORDIANVS AVGVSTVS
BORN 200 AD INTERAMNA
RULE 9 MONTHS 25 SEPTEMBER, 275 AD - JUNE 276AD
Elected by the Senate to replace Aurelian, after a short interregnum.
Natural causes (possibly assassinated)
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TACITUS 275 - 276 AD
BUSTS OF TACITUS
FROM MUSEUMS: BRITISH MUSEUM, LOUVRE,

 

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FLORIAN 276 AD

CAESAR MARCVS ANNIVS FLORIANVS AVGVSTVS
BORN ?
RULE 6 YEARS JUNE 276AD - SEPTEMBER 276 AD
Brother of Tacitus, elected by the army in the west to replace him..
Assassinated by his own troops, in favour of Probus
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FLORIAN 276 AD
BUSTS OF FLORIAN
FROM MUSEUMS:

 

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PROBUS 275 AD - 282 AD

CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS PROBVS AVGVSTVS
BORN 232 AD, Sirmium
RULE 6 YEARS September? 276 AD – September/ October 282 AD
Governor of the eastern provinces, proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions in opposition to Florian..
Assassinated by his own troops, in favour of Carus
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PROBUS 275 -282 AD
BUSTS OF PROBUS
FROM MUSEUMS ROME, BRITISH MUSEUM,

 

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CARUS 282 AD-283 AD

CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CARVS AVGVSTVS
BORN 230 AD, NARBO
RULE 10-11 MONTHS September/ October 282 AD – late July/ early August 283 AD
Praetorian Prefect to Probus; seized power either before or after Probus was murdered.
Natural causes? (Possibly killed by lightning)
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CARUS 282 - 283 AD
BUSTS OF CARUS
FROM MUSEUMS: BRITISH MUSEUM,

 

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NUMERIAN 283 AD - 284 AD

CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS NVMERIVS NVMERIANVS AVGVSTVS
BORN ?
RULE 1 YEAR Late July / early August 283 AD – 284 AD
Son of Carus, succeeded him jointly with his brother Carinus.

Unclear; possibly assassinated
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NUMERIAN 283 - 284 AD
BUSTS OF NUMERIAN
FROM MUSEUMS:

 

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CARINUS 283 AD - 285 AD

CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CARINVS AVGVSTVS
BORN ?
RULE 2 YEARS Late July / early August 283 AD – 285 AD
Son of Carus, succeeded him jointly with his brother Numerian..
Died in battle against Diocletian? Possibly assassinated
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CARINUS 283 - 285 AD
BUSTS OF CARINUS
FROM MUSEUMS:ROME,

 

 

 

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